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Democracy in Distress: The Violence of Party Politics, 1788-1800

In the first United States Senate in 1789, their was a debate on how to address George Washington as president revealed the  range of political quetions tp be considered by early politicians. George Washington began his career as president in 1789, an office he managed successfully. Congress refined the machinery of government with the creation of executive departments and a federal court system and provided revenue with passage of a tariff act. Americans split into two camps: Federalist were led by Alexander Hamilton, and the Republicans led by Thomas Jefferson. Both men had different conceptions about the nature of government and society, economic policy, foreign affiliations, and interpretation of the constitution. Hamilton wanted a strong national government and central economic planning in the hands of the moneyrd elite to ensure order in political and economic affairs. Hamilton also thought the national government must repay the national debt as well as assume any outstanding state debts. Hamilton urged creation pf a Bank of the United States. Jefferson feared such a government would become oppressive, threatening states' rights and infringing upon individual liberty. Warfare between Britain and France complicated American politics. Chief Justice John Jay was sent to London to negotiate a settlement of American's grievances. Jay's Treaty maintained peace, Republican critics denounced it as a  "sellout" of American Rights. The Whuiskey Rebellion was branded as civil unrest and Republican agitation by the Federalists.  The Treaty on Mortrfontaine ended the Quasi- War and restored good relations between France and the United States. The Federalists lost office in 1800 partly becauser of internal party disputes.

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