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The American Revolution: From Elite Protest to Popular Revolt, 1763-1783

1763 and 1783, Americans rebelled against English rule, declared Independence, and won the military struggle against the British. At the end of the Seven Years' War American society looked to the future with considerable political and economic expectation. British was left with a large debt to pay, and their attention turned to the colonies as a new source of revenue. King George III, his ministers, and Parliament based their views on the colonies on inaccurate information while Parliament stubbornly defended their own "sovereign supreme power over every part of the dominions of state." The American view on the power of colonial assemblies, representative government, and freedom from England's revenue taxation, which was the "No Taxation Without Representation." American ideology contained a heavy emphasis on religious and moral components based on various sources from the Great Awakening and John Locke to Commonwealthmen. Americans found power dangerous unless contained by virtue. After the Proclamation of 1763 was issued, British troops obstructed western settlement. George Grenville insisted Americans help pay for British troops with new taes and restrictions on trade. Groups of men protested against the Stamp Act. Boycotts were lead by the Sons of Liberty. The Boston Tea Party led to the Coercive Acts and American Rebellion. A Second Continental Congress (1775)took control of the American war effort but only debated independence until British aggressions. July 2, 1776, Congress voted for independence and two days later accepted Thomas Jefferson's Declaration of Independence. Americans won a final victory at Yorktown.

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